Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility

Testicular cancer (TC) is not ranked as a prevalent male cancer in the world, it is the most common oncological diagnosis in the reproductive age group of patients (20–35 years). The theory behind this critical connection possibly lies in a burst of hormones typical for males reaching puberty, triggering carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells, being “innate” and having the potential to proliferate into cancer cells. Different types of TC exist, however the most common is testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC), representing about 95%, with approximately 9000 diagnoses in the United States each year. TGCCs are of two types, seminomas and non-seminomas. Each constitutes approximately 50% of TGCCs, while 15% of patients present with both types .


Seminomas originate in the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules, where malignant cells most likely arise from primordial germ cells (PGCs) -progenitors of the gametes. Compared to other TGCCs, these tumors are generally more responsive to treatment via orchiectomy, chemotherapy or radiation. Unlike seminomas, nonseminomas represent other types of germ cell tumors, such as embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, yolksac tumor, choriocarcinoma, and are usually treated with chemotherapy due to a lower sensitivity to radiation.


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